Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Annotated Bibliography: Ken Starr and Bill Clinton

This detailed bibliography takes a look at a few of the sources I used when writing a research paper regarding Ken Starr’s investigation of Bill Clinton. Associated Content has the rights to this paper and you may find this paper on my profile page.

Primary Sources

Baker, Peter. The Breach: Inside the Impeachment and Trial of William Jefferson Clinton.
New York, NY: Scribner, 2000.

This book does not focus so much on the events leading up to the Monica Lewinsky ordeal, but it focuses more on the events that occurred after this ordeal became public such as the impeachment and trial of President Clinton. It is an account of the events that occurred from 17 August 1998 to 12 February 1999. The former date was the day of Clinton’s grand jury testimony and the latter date was when he was acquitted by the Senate. Concerning my research this book is a great source that helps me get a less biased opinion of the proceedings that took place between Clinton and Starr concerning the impeachment trial of President Clinton. It should be considered a primary source based on the three-hundred and fifty original interviews, diaries, confidential investigation files, and tape recordings that Baker used to write the book.

Clinton, Bill. My Life. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004.

This book is the life story of Bill Clinton. It talks about him growing up and the events that shaped his life. It dives very deeply into his political career and gives detailed information about his presidential administration. This book is very important to my research. To paint a complete picture and support my thesis I need to know how Clinton feels about Starr and his investigation. This book points out how Starr’s investigation was practiced unfairly at times and this gives me a first hand look into this. This is a primary source because it is written by the man who is one of the most important players in Starr’s investigation.

Conason, Joe, and Gene Lyons. The Hunting of the President: The Ten Year Campaign to
Destroy Bill and Hillary Clinton. New York, NY: Thomas Dunne Books, 2000.

This book is exactly what the title says it is. It looks at the movements of so many forces that came together to try and bring down the Clinton presidency and the Clinton family as a whole. It identifies the real bad guys and the tactics that were used by them in their efforts to destroy Bill Clinton. It shows how these people were able to mount such an attack and also explores the mainstream news organizations that helped them. This is a vital book to my research because it takes a critical look at the techniques of the Starr investigation. By reading this book I am able to examine to unfair methods that were sometimes employed by the Starr investigation. This book should be considered a primary source based on the extensive amount of interviews that were used to write it.

Schmidt, Susan, and Michael Weisskopf. Truth At Any Cost. New York, NY: HarperCollins
Publishers, 2000.

This book is an examination of the Ken Starr investigation of Bill Clinton concerning the Monica Lewinsky affair. It paints a complete picture by telling the story of how Ken Starr came to investigate Clinton and Lewinsky. It is a very detailed description from almost every angle of the investigation. This book is an important part of my research because it takes a critical look at the actions of the Clinton administration. As you read the book it becomes very clear how the authors feel about the situation. They have very little if anything to say that is negative about Starr and the way he conducted his investigation. This should be considered a primary source because it was written using the interviews of one-hundred and fifty people. Almost every event that is described in the book has been confirmed by more than one source.

Starr, Kenneth W. “My Job: What Bill Clinton Left Out of His Memoir.” Opinion Journal, 8
July 2004. (accessed 10 February

This is an article where Ken Starr examines the book My Life that was written by Bill Clinton. His purpose is to refute certain facts that are laid out by Bill Clinton in his memoir. He goes on record to talk about things Clinton said that he does not believe are true. This is important to my research because it allows me to hear Starr talk about what Clinton said about the investigation. I get to hear Starr speak first hand about the investigation. It is a primary source because it is a written article by one of the key players who will be investigated in my paper.

The Office of the Independent Counsel. The Starr Report: The Evidence. New York, NY:
Pocket Books, 1998.

This book includes a majority of the evidence that was collected by the Office of the Independent Counsel during the investigation of Clinton concerning his affair with Monica Lewinsky. It includes a full text version of Clinton’s videotaped grand jury testimony. It also has testimony and interview statements from Monica Lewinsky. This book is important to my research because it is one of the main primary sources that I can use to research my thesis. It provides a first hand glimpse into the investigation from the actual people who worked on it. It is a primary source because of the numerous interviews that are included within the text. Also included within it are photographs that are vital to the investigation. It includes other information such as emails and handwritten notes that would be considered primary sources.

Secondary Sources

“A Chronology: Key Moments in the Clinton-Lewinsky Saga.” CNN. (accessed 11 February 2006).

This source simply provides a timeline for the significant events that occurred during the Clinton and Lewinsky ordeal. Key events are highlighted from June 1995 to 24 September 1998. This is an important source for my research because of the timeline that it provides. This source will help me properly structure my paper so that each event I discuss is conveyed in accurate chronological order. It also provides links to many other great articles that will be helpful in proving my thesis.

Anderson, Christopher. Bill and Hillary: The Marriage. New York, NY: William Morrow
and Company, Inc., 1999.

This book is an examination of the marriage of Bill and Hillary Clinton. In the book, Anderson attempts to relay the true nature of their relationship. This book really seems to be an excuse to praise Hillary for staying with such a man as Bill Clinton. This book is important to my research for many reasons. It talks about the impact of Starr’s investigation into the life of Bill Clinton and how it affected the marriage. It gives a view of how Bill and Hillary approached Starr and his investigation.

Bennett, William J. The Death of Outrage: Bill Clinton and the Assault on American Ideals.
New York, NY: The Free Press, 1998.

This book explores the Clinton scandals and the subsequent social and political damage that has been caused by them. It explains how the arguments used by supporters of the president are deemed inadequate when viewed with common sense and moral reason. The main argument that the book examines is how Clinton’s advisers have built up a wall around Clinton’s scandals and Bennett is attempting to bring the wall down. This book is valuable to my research because it examines how the Clinton administration did not always play fairly when considering their actions toward Ken Starr and his investigative team. It takes a special look at some of the president’s intimidation tactics that were used during the investigation.

Dershowitz, Alan M. Sexual McCarthyism: Clinton, Starr, and the Emerging Constitutional
Crisis. New York, NY: Basic Books, 1998.

This book takes a critical look at the actions of Bill Clinton and Ken Starr concerning the Whitewater investigation, the Paula Jones lawsuit, and the Monica Lewinsky ordeal. It also addresses other issues such as the need for an Independent Counsel in such affairs. Along these same lines it looks into the system that is used to select members to the Independent Counsel. The book concludes by taking a look at the how Bill Clinton and Ken Starr have driven our nation into a Constitutional crisis. This book is great for my research because it is written in a way where my thesis could almost be used for the thesis of this book. It does not take a slanted angle on the Clinton and Starr ordeal. It views both men critically in an effort to show that they both made mistakes that eventually prolonged what could have been an avoidable crisis.

Hitchens, Christopher. No One Left to Lie to: The Triangulations of William Jefferson Clinton.
New York, NY: Verso, 1999.

This book makes it clear from the beginning that it has no hidden agenda. Hitchen’s goes after the president for the way in which he used New Deal liberalism to his advantage. In so doing he completely destroyed this aspect of the Democratic Party. Like so many other books I have listed this book will aide in my research because it examines the unfair practices used by the Clinton administration to thwart the efforts of the Independent Counsel. It explores how Clinton’s escapades to try and attain his innocence were an abuse of power. This type of information helps me to prove my thesis.

Klein, Joe. The Natural: The Misunderstood Presidency of Bill Clinton. New York, NY:
Doubleday, 2002.

This book takes a look at the many influential events of the Clinton presidency. It gives as unbiased opinion as one can find concerning Clinton administrations effect on the economy, military, and the country as whole. It does not dive very deeply into Clinton’s affair with Lewinsky but it does talk about it. This book will help in my research because it gets away from the gossip and emotional instability that plagued the Clinton administration and delivers a rational view of Clinton’s eight years as president. It addresses some of the things that Clinton did right during the Starr investigation and some of the things he did wrong.

Labels: Annotated Bibliography: Ken Starr and Bill Clinton

Anime: Japanese Pop-Culture Trend Impacts the United States

I was recently thinking over some of the anime series in my collection and decided to start watching Inuyasha from episode number ninety-six. Now, there are one hundred and seventy episodes of Inuyasha including the movies and I own them all. I wouldn’t class myself as an “otaku” or obsessed fan of anything but observing the culture built up around it and studying the cultures that gave birth to such animated movies and animated series. It amazes me that over such short periods of time that two hundred episodes to a series appear and air.

Japan is a heavy influence on the United States. Fans of Japanese afficionada, the influx and Japanese movies, comics and animation have taken America by storm. The cultural acceptance of subtitled and dubbed Japanese series isn’t that surprising but the number of viewers is quite surprising and also the number of series and movies as well. As especially new, the science fiction or fantasy conventions seem to have been pushed away by America’s younger generation and the turn-out at conventions like the annual Anime Con in Dallas are much more than those conventions ever were and frequented by a larger audience demographic as well, including kids, teens as well as adults of all ages.

One current series that has popularity among an older crowd around the world outside of japan and a younger crowd of fans around the world when it’s been dubbed in English is Naruto. The series ended early last year and has been followed by another series that has seemed to age with the fans and characters, this is Naruto Shipuuden. Blood, violence and language that would forbid the series from getting the ratings of PG have been edited out when published in U.S. DVD, “edited” as they have been with many anime series coming to the United States.Published under a different label, the local company realizes the popularity of an anime and attempts to domesticate it to appeal to local audiences and families. Many fans of the Japanese animated series that have come here have been annoyed by a demographic being targeted that wasn’t intended for the first publishing of these series and though some children and young teens watched these, the censoring and cutting of scenes when publishing anime in the U.S. has become very common and has broadened the demographic in age groups that will likely view it however it’s also lowered them quiet a bit and has been targeted to your average cartoon watching child.

Some series that have been kept mostly intact have been published here on DVD only and also uncut and uncensored versions have been published by the same companies that put out the censored versions to give the original intended audience a chance to view them and has met with success. Other popular animes just by theme and backstory have been deemed too risky to try to market to a younger audience therefore older teens and twenty-somethings have been the intended audience for many of them, aired at night at hours that would likely not expose younger audiences to them as well as forgoing the usual cartoon marketing stance of action figures, plush toys and the like that would appeal to a younger audience. Instead, collector’s memoribilia, some of which is indeed remniscient of the action figures and toys we’re used to but not as functional or meant for recreation, but instead appreciation and to keep as they may valuate.

Across the board these types of animation have appeared as an art form that’s been taken-to quite well by the younger generations in the U.S. and other countries and also popularized by conventions, airtime on the popular movie and cartoon networks and even dedicated services and networks providing only anime in part of as a whole.

I estimate that the fact that these are considered art and not underestimated in the amount of effort and creativity put in that has been passed up beyond the design of story and characters in many cartoons over the years.These animations have plots containing drama and depth also that hasn’t been seen before. Special effects and computer assisted creation has become common and as well new technologies are applied as they come out by artists creating new projects. There’s enough of these series coming out each year and most are popular enough to get a good amount of viewers, netting viewers in the millions of played prime-time every week as some are in Japan on T.V. Tokyo or in the U.S. or other countries on certain premium networks. There’s quite a piracy trade of these also, including what are called “fan subtitled” animes and movies, which are published on internet sites as soon as one day after a show or movie airs, is released or shown a theater.

In my opinion the U.S. publishing companies trying to take these animes and make spinoffs with the same art styles or story themes but is failing to grasp the gestalt when popularizing these cartoons but have had success in marketing these to the youngest of audiences because they can’t really tell the difference between a bad series and a good one. Whether you are a die-hard fan or if it’s just a favorite form of entertainment, if you’re between the ages of fifteen and twenty in America or Japan this cultural trend has likely affected you. Some go so far in their love that a subculture of the “best costume” or “costume party” mentality has lent itself to an idea called “cosplay”, which is costume imitation of anime or video game characters, much of it done to show off as mostly these costumes are home-made. So far with the popularity of trends related to the heavy Japanese pop culture influence of America, there’s been a huge number of people who’ve taken to these trends quite well and we’ll have to see what the future brings, though it won’t be a surprise to me if the current trends continue for a very long time.

Labels: Anime: Japanese Pop-Culture Trend Impacts the United States

6 Steps to Setting Business Goals and Objectives

Business goals set the tone on what is important to the business so that work is directed to achieving what is important. Goals help businesses reach new levels and advancing in the marketplace, plus help motivate the workforce and give employees direction in their decision making.

Short-terms goals should be achievable in less than one year, while long-term goals take over a year to accomplish. Long-term goals should be adjusted annually for changes in the competitive landscape, technical innovations, and societal trends.

Steps to Set Business Goals and Objectives

1. Review the mission and vision statements. If the business does not already have a mission or vision statement, then take the time to develop them. These statements should clearly state what the business hopes to achieve. For example, Nike’s mission statement is “To be the world’s leading sports and fitness company.”

2. Brainstorm ideas. Brainstorming ideas on how to achieve the mission and vision statements, do not focus on the specifics or if certain ideas or realistic. The key here is to write down as many ideas as possible without stopping. If you have a management team, then set a meeting for everyone to brainstorm ideas together.

3. Select the top 1 to 3 ideas. Sort through all of the ideas and look for the ones that clearly are linked to the mission and vision statements, realistic and profitable. The strongest ideas will become your business goals. Do not select more than three goals, as if you divide up your resources to achieving too many goals then you are more likely to not achieve any. Both long-term and short-term goals can be chosen in this step.

4. Make these goals S.M.A.R.T. For a goal to be S.M.A.R.T, is should specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and timely. For instance, instead saying the goal is to “reduce inventory costs”, state that the goal is to “reduce costs by 10% before April 31, 20xx.” Goals that are S.M.A.R.T are easier to measure progress and helps keep everyone on track for success.

5. Set milestones and progress measurements. Break the goals up into milestones with deadlines. This serves as a way to measure progress, keep employees on track, and ensure that the goal will be met in the desired timeframe. These milestones should also be S.M.A.R.T.

6. Assign responsibility to each goal. John C. Maxwell, an expert in leadership, once said, “A pessimist complains about the wind. An optimist expects it to change. A leader adjusts the sails.” Find leaders in the organization to take responsibility that each goal gets fulfilled. Provide the leader with the overall big picture of what the business hopes to accomplish, as well as what their specific responsibilities and deadlines are.

Achieving Business Goals and Objectives

It is not only important to set business goals and objectives, but employees should be motivated in order for a higher level of success. Employees should be involved as much as possible in developing the goals so that they feel a personal involvement.

After the goals are set, make sure that everyone in the organization clearly understands what the goals are and what their roles are on achieving the new goals. If the business created a new vision and mission statement, or revised the previous one, then communicate these with employees so that they understand where the company is heading. The more employees that are on board with the company’s mission and the new goals, the more likely the business will see success.

Labels: 6 Steps to Setting Business Goals and Objectives

Alterations 101: Taking in a Basic T-Shirt

Maybe it was a thrift store jewel, the perfect shade with a cute pattern that you just had to have, but it’s two sizes two big and unflattering on your figure. Maybe it looked great on the rack, but once you got it home, you realized that it’s too roomy in the middle. Or maybe you’ve been dieting and now that you’ve shrunk out of all of your favorite shirts, you’re in the great debate…do I spend more money on clothes when I’m not done dieting, or do I dare tackle taking in a shirt?

If it’s a simple shirt, alterations are surprisingly easy, especially if you’re taking it in around the bust and the waist.

The quickest and easiest way to take in a shirt is to fit it to yourself and then adjust the seams (at the sides). You’ll need to remember to take in each side equally. If you take in your shirt all on one side, the shirt will look twisted.


If you’re taking in the shirt for yourself, all you’ll need for this step are these items:

A mirror, like the mirror in your bathroom or a full-length mirror.

Your shirt



Turn your shirt inside out and put it on. While in front of the mirror, pinch the fabric at each side to determine about how much you’d like to take in. While it might look good while you’re standing straight (and sucking your stomach in) to want to alter your shirt skin tight, you’ll want to leave a little wiggle room there. Grab a couple of pins and place them through both layers of fabric in the pinched area, one on each side.

Tip: If you place your pins pointy-end down/away from your head, it will make it much less painful to take off your shirt for the next step.

Once you have your basic guides in place, you can then shape the rest of your shirt the way you’d like, remembering to take in equal (or close to) amounts of fabric on each side so that your shirt will lay correctly. Take special care at the waistline to make sure that your front and back hem line up correctly if you’re taking it in over your hips. You can take in the chest, stomach, and hip areas of your shirt this way.

If you want to take in your sleeves, you can pin them the same way, though usually you can just take them in along the existing seamline (no need to pin and sew on both sides). Pin and check the way your new sleeves are going to lay. If you don’t like it, you can still troubleshoot before you start sewing.

Tip: If you’re going to take in sleeves and the waist, I would still recommend leaving the area around the shoulder/bustline intact on most styles of shirts, because many shirts have 4 pieces of fabric joining under the sleeve, and if you start messing with that area, it’s no longer a simple alteration. You can still take in the areas close to this area, but slant what will be your new seamline toward the existing seamline in the underarm area so that it doesn’t bunch up.

Once you’ve pinned your shirt in place, see how it lays. Slouch. Wiggle. Turn to look at it from all angles. Stick your stomach out like you’ve just had a full meal because sitting can affect the way your waistline. If you’re comfortable with the way you look in your shirt with the new seams secured with pins, then you’re ready to take off your shirt and begin the next step.


If you’re ready to take in your shirt, here’s what you’ll need for this step:

Sewing machine and thread or needle/thread and a lot of patience. If you’re lucky, you can get access to a serger. However, if you have access to a serger, you are unlikely to need this tutorial.


Seam ripper (just in case)

Now you’re ready to sew your shirt. If you used enough pins, you’ll be able to easily tell where the new seamline will be, even as you remove them to sew. If you want extra assurance, you can always draw in the seamline between the pins with tailor’s chalk or a washable fabric marker.

Sew your shirt along the new seamline, taking special care to make sure that your hemlines are lined up properly and that your fabric isn’t bunching near where your seamline will end. For women, you’ll likely be forming an arc (even if it’s minor) that travels outward to meet up with the old seamline at the bust. You can just sew right off this edge. Remember to secure your stitches by sewing, reversing, and then sewing again for about an inch in the same spot at the shirt bottom and sleeve edge so that it doesn’t come unraveled.

Once you’ve sewn in your new seamlines, it’s time for your second fitting. It’s important to actually DO the second fitting because once you start cutting, there’s no turning back.

Flip your shirt right side out and try it on. You’ll have some bunching from the extra fabric you’re going to remove in the next step. Try to lay the fabric flat against your body so you can see the new fit.

If you’re not satisfied with the new fit, you’ll have to take a seam ripper to the new stitches in the problem area, refit, and do this all again. If you ARE satisfied, then it’s time to cut off your extra fabric

Tip: Some fabric frays, and some fabric frays really badly. While Fray Check can keep some fraying at bay, it doesn’t stand a chance at holding together some fabrics. Satin will sometimes fray, but it isn’t too bad with Fray Check. Linen also frays. Some fabric seems to have been created specifically TO fray (lamé and I are bitter enemies). If it’s t-shirt material, it’s likely to be okay. If it’s a disco shirt from the 1970’s, cut the fabric at your own risk. For most fabrics, cutting will only lead to minimal fraying. If you start to notice fraying, see if you can control it with Fray Check. If you start to cut and the edge turns into a poofball with threads going everywhere, find a serger to cut and finish your seams for you.


Now you’re ready to cut. Here’s what you’ll need for this step:


Fray Check (potentially)

Ruler, measuring tape, or seam gauge

You’re going to cut your new edge ½ inch to the outside of your new seamline.

You might also want to secure the seams at the waistline or sleeve edges so they’ll lay flat and not stick out of your shirt. You can open the seam and sew each edge to the part of the shirt it lays against, or you can sew them both to one side if the seam will lay that way. There are other ways to finish this part, but that’s the easiest.

You’re done! Now you have a custom fitted shirt that should flatter your figure exactly the way you want.

Need more alterations done? Look for my upcoming article on taking in an elastic waistband/basic waistline!

Labels: Alterations 101: Taking in a Basic T-Shirt

Adolf Hitler and Ludwig Wittgenstein: Childhood Rivals?

During the first years of Hitler’s life, his father moved numerous times around the city of Linz, Austria. At the age of eleven he attended the Realschule of Linz, a school where he later claimed to do poorly to show his father that he had no interest in following his footsteps as a civil servant. Though he had good grades at his previous grammar school, he made poor marks at the Linz school and was forced to transfer to the state high school at Steyr, outside of Linz, where he left before graduating.


By a strange coincidence, Hitler shared the Linz school with another twentieth century celebrity: the eccentric philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, considered one of the most creative philosophers of the twentieth century.[i] Though they were the same age, Hitler was two years behind Wittgenstein in the school. According to Wittgenstein biographer Ray Monk, neither had anything to do with each other. However, Kimberley Cornish proposed an interesting theory in 1998 that Hitler began his hatred for Jews due to his school relationship with the brilliant Wittgenstein, who came from an affluent Jewish family though they had converted to Catholicism. Try as many have, any real link between Hitler and Wittgenstein is missing though there is no doubt they were in the same school. A photograph clearly showing a young Hitler exists with a boy resembling Wittgenstein but whether it is Wittgenstein remains a question.[ii]

Like Hitler, Wittgenstein served in the trenches of World War I. It was literally in the trenches of warfare when Wittgenstein began writing one of his greatest philosophical pieces, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, that was eventually published in 1921 with an introduction by his famed philosophical mentor, Bertrand Russell. Wittgenstein would later teach philosophy at Cambridge University and have as one of his pupils Alan Turing,[iii] the brilliant mathematician who worked successfully at Bletchley Park[iv] as a principal character in breaking the Nazi’s secret code machine, Enigma.[v]

Wittgenstein, born in 1889 like Hitler and another controversial philosopher Heidigger,[vi] was one of the most enigmatic and fascinating philosophers of the twentieth century; a man who gave away his inheritance worth a fortune, a World War I hero, rural Austrian grammar school teacher, university lecturer, architect, and hopeful designer of the jet engine (a study eventually abandoned for another scientist).[vii] The only one thing agreed about Wittgenstein of those who write about him and knew him is that he was as controversial and strange as he was diverse in his intellectual talents. Hitler was never fond of real intellects and often touted his failure at traditional schooling as a badge of honor. Did the personalities of these two strangely gifted boys clash in the school rooms of Linz, Austria decades before they would become internationally infamous? It is an intriguing thought that Hitler may have been intimidated if not incensed by Wittgenstein’s genius, but not something we can completely believe without further proof.

Karl May

One of Hitler’s favorite authors was Karl May (1848-1912), a German novelist who wrote young adult novels set in the American West or the Orient and served two prison terms for fraud in 1865 and 1874. Though May had never visited the American West, he created a character called Old Shatterhand who had a passion for killing Indians, especially Ogallala. Though he misplaced and misspelled the names of Native Americans of the old American West, and had poor knowledge of the real history of their encounters with American soldiers, May cast Old Shatterhand as an avenging, admirable hero who exacted a deserving butchery upon what he regarded as an inferior race. Old Shatterhand’s world teemed with bloodshed, violence, and cruelty toward Native Americans.

Hitler read and reread many of the seventy volumes of May novels during his early years. Oddly, Hitler told many of his acquaintances throughout his life that May’s work gave him his first notions of geography and had opened his eyes to the world.[viii] “Karl May Clubs” were set up in Germany in the 1950s and were often covers for anti-communist clubs. Hitler created his own reality when it came to America as well. Hitler chose to view the film version of John Steinbeck’s brilliant The Grapes of Wrath as a realistic depiction of America as an impoverished and decaying nation.

Though it is unlikely Hitler knew of the English storywriter M. P. Shiel, but if he had he could have read Shiel’s prophetic 1896 story of a group of “super men” roaming Europe murdering people with physical and mental flaws. The story, entitled “The S.S.,” seemed to eerily predict the future Nazi nightmare.

Willem Richard Wagner

When Hitler left his last school in Steyr without a degree, he considered himself a loner with only his mother and a single friend, August Kubicek, as companions. Kubicek relates two incidents concerning Hitler’s character: upon finding that his lottery ticket was not a winner he flew into a rage denouncing “human credulity, the state lottery organization, and finally condemned the cheating government itself.”[ix] Kubicek also described Hitler’s reaction to a performance of Richard Wagner’s Rienzi, which they both attended. Hitler had a fascination with Wagnerian opera all his life. After the performance Hitler began a long, impassioned oratory “sketching for me his future and that of his people.”

When they met three decades later, Hitler remarked, “It began there.”[x] To Hitler, Wagner’s music immortalized the spirit of Teutonic gods and the ideal human: the “Nordic race.” Kubicek wrote that Hitler told him, “. . . I am especially happy to say that I can attribute my later rise to these modest provincial performances.” Wagner was openly anti-Jew and clearly presented his position within writing.


Cohen, Martin. Philosophical Tales, Blackwell Publ., Malden, MA., 2008.

Cornish, Kimberley. The Jew of Linz: Wittgenstein, Hitler and their secret battle of the mind, Century, London, 1998.

Fest, Joachim. Hitler. Vintage, New York, 1975.

Klein, Mina and Arthur. Hitler’s Hangups, Dutton Press, 1976.

Kubicek, August. The Young Hitler I Knew, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1955.

[i] Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) was a primary influence on two philosophical movements: logical positivism and linguistic analysis.

[ii] Cornish, Kimberley. The Jew of Linz: Wittgenstein, Hitler and their secret battle of the mind, Century, London, 1998. For commentary of this book see The Economist (US, March 14, 1998 v. 346, n. 8059, p. 18 and French, Sean, New Statesman, March 13, 1998, v. 127, n. 4376, p. 18.)

[iii] Turing was a key figure in creating Colossus, the first programmed electronic digital computer used to decode the Nazi Enigma machine. Depressed over police intimidation over his homosexuality, Turing coated an apple with prussic acid and ate it, dying shortly after at the age of 42.

[iv] A mansion 50 miles north of London in Buckinghamshire was purchased by British Secret Intelligence Service to house its Government Code and Cipher School in 1938. An original staff of 200 ballooned to 7,000 by 1944.

[v] The Enigma machine, a Nazi ciphering device used by the Germans during WWII, carried most of the German armed services classified communications. With the basic appearance of a typewriter, the machine used a series of moving rotors that were set to the same rotor position before transmission. When a key was punched a corresponding letter would appear on a lighted, battery-powered panel. A receiving operator would key the ciphered letter into his machine and have it converted into the original letter. The breaking of the code was called the Ultra Secret.

[vi]Heidegger was a member of the Nazi party for twelve years.

[vii]Cohen, Martin. Philosophical Tales, Blackwell Publ., Malden, MA., 2008, p. 220.

[viii] Klein, Mina and Arthur. Hitler’s Hangups, Dutton Press, 1976, pp. 8-9.

[ix] Fest, Joachim. Hitler. Vintage, New York, 1975, p. 22.

[x] Kubicek, August. The Young Hitler I Knew, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1955.

Labels: Adolf Hitler and Ludwig Wittgenstein: Childhood Rivals?

A Guide to Making a Living Writing for Textbroker: Strategies to Make $1,000 or More

If you are a freelance writer, you have probably heard of Textbroker. Textbroker is a website offering freelance writers the opportunity to select writing jobs from a variety of clients, on a variety of topics, for which they are paid per word at an established rate. It is an attractive system for those who need regular writing income. There are numerous articles on Associated Content discussing what Textbroker is and how it works. I’ll refer you to one of the best on the topic here so you can read up on the site if you need more information. This article will focus on something other than just the basics of the site.

I have been writing for Textbroker since December, and to date it has made me the most money of any of the sites I write for. In fact, in the last two weeks, I’ve managed to make over $1,000. If I decide to keep writing at my present rate, making a full-time living from Textbroker alone is definitely possible for me. And it can be possible for you, too, if you want it to be.

Textbroker has a rating system by which it ranks the quality of its authors’ work. If you are at a level 2, you earn 0.7 per word. If you are at level 3, you earn 1.0 cents per word, and if you are at level 4, you earn 1.4 cents per word. I am writing this article from the perspective of someone who has attained level 4 status and is consistently given excellent ratings on her work. If your Textbroker rating is level 3 or lower I’m not sure it’s possible to make a living with them. If you don’t have that much in the way of living expenses, it might be, but I can’t say for sure. For the purposes of this article, I am going to assume you too have reached level 4 and are interested in learning how to make a living writing for Textbroker. My tips are below.

Be prepared to work hard. This might seem like obvious advice, but I repeat it here because it’s true. Most articles at level 4 pay between $4 and $9, depending on the word count needed. If you want to make a living on Textbroker, you will have to turn these articles around fast so that you can write several per day. This means, obviously, that you can’t be leisurely about your assignments.

Don’t just stick with what you know. This advice may sound contrary to what you’ve heard for years about how to be successful at writing. However, if you just stick with what you know you’ll probably end up writing very little for Textbroker. Granted, there are some interesting categories on the site that would appeal to many people, such as arts and crafts, horoscopes, humor, movies and music. These categories have orders occasionally, but they are few and far between, and they usually get scooped up very quickly. By far the categories with the most orders tend to be those dealing with business, technology, finances, marketing, and the automotive industry. I’ve seen many people become frustrated with this site because they feel as though they don’t know enough about any of the order topics to write about them. This is not a good attitude to take. I’m not an expert on any of these topics, either; in fact, probably the only category with which I can write with any semblance of authority is the health category, and that’s only because I am very interested in health and alternative medicine and do a lot of research in this field for my own personal knowledge, not because I have any medical training. There is no way I would have made over $1,000 in the past two weeks on Textbroker if I had just written about what I knew.

Select orders dealing with topics for which you wouldn’t mind doing research. Dovetailing from my previous point, you don’t have to just write about things you already know on Textbroker. However, if research is required, most of your orders should be dealing with topics for which you wouldn’t mind doing this research. One of the categories I frequently check is health, because I know it’s likely I’ll find something I will enjoy doing research on. Another category I write orders for frequently is law, because I find the subject matter interesting, even if I’m not an expert on it. However, I remember the first article I selected from the automotive category, in which I had to research diesel cars. That article took me forever to write, because I don’t find cars all that exciting, and the research was very tedious. Now I am more careful about what I select, knowing this.

Balance your research time with your writing. It is important that you not spend hours researching an article. This is the mistake I made when I first started. Because I wasn’t sure what was expected of me and I wanted the client to be satisfied, I was very meticulous in my research and it took me about four hours to write a 500 word article! If you’re trying to make a living with this site, obviously that amount of time spent is unacceptable. I have a rule regarding time spent researching. If research for an article is taking me longer than half an hour, I usually send the order back, unless I’m being paid more than $10 for it. For me it isn’t worth investing more than half an hour of research time into an article for which I may only be paid $4 or $5. Bear in mind that you may be surprised at the orders that take you the most time. If an order is asking you to summarize Amazon reviews for a series of related products, it is likely to take you a while, because you will have to go to each individual product’s page and read a number of reviews. Although such research may be “easy”, because you know exactly where to go to find your information, it might not be the best use of your time.

Don’t select orders from overly persnickety clients. I have seen a plethora of orders with long, detailed lists of instructions for authors to abide by under threat of rejection of their work. Notwithstanding the fact that I don’t think such an adversarial tone is necessary when placing orders with the Textbroker system, it’s generally a turn-off for me, because invariably these articles will only net the author $3 or $4. Granted, because Textbroker takes thirty percent right off the top, the client is actually paying more than what the rate listed next to the article is. However, it doesn’t make sense, from an author’s perspective, to select these low-paying orders from clients if you’re going to have to spend a lot of time worrying about whether you’ve followed all of their detailed instructions. Yes, a few instructions are fine and not a reason to refrain from selecting otherwise worthwhile projects. Some clients may require that you cite a few sources or use a certain keyword a few times, or that you write only in third person, for example. But if a client is telling you that you are not allowed to use the words “is” or “because” in an article (yes, I really did see this once), you’ll spend way too much time trying to craft your sentences to avoid violating their ludicrous guidelines. It’s too much stress, and not worth it.

Inquire about Direct Orders. When clients give you excellent ratings, send them a message thanking them and telling them you would like to write for them in the future. I learned this from the Textbroker blog. I was on Textbroker for months before I learned that this is the main way to get Direct Orders from clients, and when I did, Direct Orders began coming in for me. Direct Orders are great to get because you aren’t in competition with the other Textbroker writers to scoop them up, and you can up your rate per word if you would like so you earn a little more per article. The potential for Direct Orders is one of the great benefits of Textbroker for aspiring writers, because it helps them initiate relationships with clients that may end up being profitable for them for years.

Textbroker is a wonderful system for people who want to get a taste of what it is like to be a web writer or a copywriter. It is also, if you work smart, a way to make a reliable income. If you follow these tips and dive right in, you can create your very own Textbroker success story.

Personal experience.

Labels: A Guide to Making a Living Writing for Textbroker: Strategies to Make $1,000 or More

5 Tips for Parents Interested in Baby/Toddler Agency Representation in the Acting and Modeling Industry

First, some agencies vary in this, but I recommend getting industry-standard professional photography for your baby or toddler. Why? Because industry-standard professional pictures show the potential buyer or casting director exactly what your child will look like when shooting for their professional project. I do not recommend using portrait photography or snapshots as the sole tool for your agency to use in representation. Unfortunately, your child will grow very quickly, so you do not need to spend thousands of dollars on their shoots, however, they do need to utilize the best photographers you can afford. Typical shoots for lifestyle markets can range from $350-$600. Also, unless your agency specifically requires it, I do not recommend getting these photos mass reproduced. After 6-8 months, you will need to reshoot and those images will be outdated. The benefit from shooting these industry standard professional pictures is that the agency can use them, as well as the parent having amazing pictures every 6-8 months for the child’s scrapbook.

Second, remember each agency is different and baby/toddler projects are typically the smallest part of what the agency books. Therefore, you should not expect a call, audition or booking every month. However, one project could reimburse you for the investment.

Third, the agency needs to be well aware of your baby’s temperament. Is your child a sleeper? A talker? Smiles a lot? When does your child take naps? Does your child warm-up easily to new people or does your child take a bit of time to warm-up? This is important, as some projects and buyers need specific types of babies. Not all projects need a perfect-smiling baby.

Fourth, feel free to enter your baby/toddler in online contests and projects. This could help reimburse your investment in pictures and your child’s amazing photos could help win extra exposure. Just be sure to clear every project with your talent agency.

Finally, always check-in with your agency via email and email any updated snapshots that you take of your child. For example, if your child grows their first tooth, the agency should know. This is important, as your child changes often and the agency or booker should know about these changes. Also, making sure your agency has correct sizes are important, as not every 2 year-old child wears a 2T.

Have fun with the pictures and give your agency the best tool they have to represent your baby/toddler!

Labels: 5 Tips for Parents Interested in Baby/Toddler Agency Representation in the Acting and Modeling Industry

5 Ways to Save Money on Christmas Eve Dinner

If you’re planning to host Christmas Eve dinner for friends or family this year, chances are you’re worried about the greens-and we’re not talking collard or mustard. As shrinking wallets make each dollar bill more precious, it is important to find ways to save money on Christmas Eve dinner without feeling like Mr. or Mrs. Scrooge. Fortunately, there are clever ways to save money on Christmas Eve dinner that won’t make your guests feel like they have to stop at Taco Bell on the way home.

How to Save Money on Christmas Eve Dinner Tip #1
Serve Plenty of Appetizing Appetizers

Although etiquette suggests that guests should not fill up on starters and spoil their appetites, frugal entertainers know that tempting guests with relatively inexpensive crackers, spreads and crudites allows them to provide smaller dinner portions without diners feeling deprived. Your guests will indulge in more appetizers if you offer a tempting array of options and delay your sit-down Christmas Eve dinner slightly longer than usual.

How to Save Money on Christmas Eve Dinner Tip #2
Curb the Courses

Does your Christmas Eve dinner really need to have a soup course, a salad course, an entrée, three side dishes and dessert? By cutting down on even one or two courses, you can shave at least one or two Jacksons from your Christmas Eve dinner grocery bill. Your guests will feel so full from appetizers they will probably not notice anything is missing.

How to Save Money on Christmas Eve Dinner Tip #3
True Meaning of Christmas

When Emeril Lagasse was still on the Food Network, he cooked a Christmas Eve dinner featuring Truffle Risotto with Parmesan Croutons, Beef Tenderloin with Fresh Horseradish and Black Pepper Crust, Exotic Mushroom Bread Pudding, Fresh Cranberry Compote and Truffles. But are these really the most fitting dinner foods to celebrate Christmas Eve? In keeping with the theme of a baby born in a humble manger–not the Four Seasons hotel–a more suitable meal might be a hearty, well-seasoned beef stew with fresh root vegetables, such as parsnips and carrots. Properly cooked, stew beef can be very tender and tasty and costs less than three dollars a pound, a fraction of the price for tenderloin.

How to Save Money on Christmas Eve Dinner Tip #4
Think Potluck

Another way to save money on your Christmas Eve dinner is to have guests bring a lot of the food. People feel happier when they contribute to a successful meal, and they also enjoy showing off their culinary skills. While your guests soak up the compliments, you will enjoy the smaller hit to your pocketbook.

How to Save Money on Christmas Eve Dinner Tip #5
Whittle the Guest List

Do you really need to invite Frank and Marge Freeloader for Christmas Eve dinner when that is the only time you ever see them? Sometimes old traditions need to be broken, such as hosting people who drive to your house on auto-pilot for a free dinner once a year. Start this year’s holiday season with a clean slate and invite only those friends or relatives whom you truly want to host. Inform guests from past years that you are starting a new Christmas Eve tradition and will no longer be hosting your “usual dinner.” With fewer mouths to feed you’ll spend less money on groceries, and you’ll have fewer dishes to wash later!

Find more articles by this writer here.


Labels: 5 Ways to Save Money on Christmas Eve Dinner

A Critique of Scientific Management

Origins of Scientific Management

Scientific management began with Frederick Winslow Taylor, who convinced influential companies such as Bethlehem Steel to hire him as an efficiency expert (Lepore, 2009). Taylor published The Principles of Scientific Management in 1911. His method was to fragment work processes into many discrete pieces, determine how each piece of work should be performed, and create time standards for each piece of work. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth expanded time and motion study by using a motion picture camera to study work processes in slow motion. The Gilbreths also distilled all human work activity into some combination of seventeen different motions, which they dubbed “therbligs” (Gilbreth spelled backwards.) The scientific managers claimed to find the “one best way” to perform any activity and then determined, through time and motion studies, how long said activity should take. According to Buckingham and Coffman (1999) “these scientific experts all base their ideas on the same premise: namely, that each person’s uniqueness is a blemish”(p.112-113).

Problems with Scientific Management

Workers who found themselves laboring under the new scientific management complained of unreasonable demands to speed work along at a pace that was not sustainable over the long term. Management complained of lazy workers and treated workers as interchangeable parts of a machine instead of sentient human beings. Rather than saving time that could be spent in leisure or family pursuits, as envisioned by Lillian Gilbreth, scientific management was instead accompanied by an increased tendency for work to encroach on family time. Lepore (2009) points out that in the late twentieth century Americans added a hundred and sixty-four hours of work annually. This amounts to four extra work weeks squeezed into a year that remains only fifty-two weeks long.

A major problem with scientific management is that, in unscrupulous hands, it ceases to be scientific. Take for example the time study, a cornerstone of Taylor’s methods. The industrial engineer or analyst doing such a study first breaks the job down into discrete parts, then uses a stopwatch to time each part as the study subject is instructed to perform at his normal pace. “Normal” is open to interpretation by the worker and the industrial engineer. In order to best determine the normal time for the task, Smith (1978) instructs the analyst to select a study subject who is skilled and experienced enough to do the job competently, although not exceptionally skilled. After taking the time measurements, the analyst is to rate the subject’s performance, with 100% defined as normal pace (Smith, 1978). Even after careful selection of a test subject and an honest attempt by the analyst to determine a performance rating, however, there may be pressure from management for the analyst to adjust the performance rating to create a standard that is faster than normal. In addition, because workers suspect management wants them to work faster without paying them more, the study subject may work more slowly in order to compensate for the expected cheating by managers. This lack of trust makes it difficult to objectively measure any work.

The adversarial atmosphere between management and subordinates fostered by scientific management is at odds with the findings of the Gallup Organization in a pair of research studies (Buckingham & Coffman, 1999). The studies asked productive employees what they needed from their employers and asked successful managers how they selected and retained talented employees. Buckingham and Coffman (1999) state, “Given the pace of change in today’s business world, one of the most valuable commodities a company can possess is the employees’ ‘benefit of the doubt'”(p.38). Trust is essential in modern organizations in which information and communication are essential to the business-or might even be the business. Information does not flow freely in the absence of trust. Why should workers give the benefit of the doubt to managers they suspect may be cheating?

Proper Use of Scientific Management

Scientific management does have a place: in streamlining repetitive processes, for example. Hammer and Champy (2001) maintain that reengineering, properly used, can empower workers rather than control them. The key is to focus on results rather than mere activity. Reward the right results, and talented people will find the best ways to achieve those results. Buckingham and Coffman (1999) echo this sentiment when they say, “Define the right outcomes and then let each person find his own route toward those outcomes” (p. 111). If managers have done their job in selecting and developing talented employees, they are free to focus on results rather than agonizing over “therbligs” and commissioning time studies.


Buckingham, M. & Coffman, C. (1999). First, break all the rules: What the world’s greatest managers do differently. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Hammer, M. & Champy, J. (2001). Reengineering the corporation. New York: HarperCollins.

Lepore, J. (2009). Not so fast. The New Yorker. [online edition] Retrieved 8/25/2010.

Smith, G., Jr. (1978). Work measurement: A systems approach. Columbus, Ohio: Grid Publishing.

Labels: A Critique of Scientific Management

Advice and Tips for Your Bed Wetting Child Before a Sleepover

With the arrival of summertime many families find it to be the perfect time to introduce sleep overs and slumber parties. Children can stay up late and sleep late the next day, making summertime perfect for introducing your child to this activity.

Sleepovers for children are a big step toward the big kid world and with sleepovers comes many worries for both parents and children. Do they take their favorite teddy bear? What pajamas will they wear? Will they be scared without mom and/or dad to tuck them in? And for children that are bed wetter’s sleepovers and slumber parties cause a whole different set of concerns.

Some questions parents and children may consider are:

Do you tell the sleep over host (relative or friend) about the bedwetting situation?

What are the sleeping arrangements; will the children be sleeping in the same bed, bunk beds or sleeping bags?

What activities will be at the sleepover event? Will there be drinks that can trigger a bed wetting episode?

Some children may decline many invitations for a sleepover, even though they really want to go because of concerns about bed wetting. They may feel embarrassed or “different.” Answering the above questions can go a long way towards planning a successful sleepover experience as well as providing your children with advice on how to handle bed wetting and still experience this thrilling and fun rite of passage for many children.

What advice, tips and tools can parents give their children to allay their fears and worries about bedwetting?

First, talk to your child and find out exactly what their fears and concerns are. A shot gun suggestion of questions about what YOU think they are can actually cause more harm than good providing them with worries they may not have thought of. Be prepared to address these common worries with this advice.

Of course the first concern is if they will wet the bed. One method of avoiding this is to discuss with your child a visit to the doctor and medication than can help them reduce their urine output. There are several prescription medicines available for short term care. If you and your child agree a visit to the pediatrician to explore this option is in order. Be sure to discuss the medication and its effects with your child and when to take it at the sleep over. Advise the adult caregiver that this medication needs to be provided at a certain time and be sure to try it out a few times at home to test its effectiveness on your child.

Talk to your child about discussing the possibility of bedwetting with the adult in charge of the sleepover before you go ahead and discuss it. Some children may need this topic discussed outside the family very carefully.

Advise your children about bedwetting and other children. Many times children feel that they are the only ones who wet the bed. By using a site like you can access information like 2 out of every 10 children between the ages of 5-10 wet the bed. But showing them they are not the only ones they can feel more comfortable about their episodes.

If your child has been invited to a slumber party sleepover, you may want to advise them to start smaller, with an individual sleep over to decide how they handle the excitement and change of schedule that a smaller event may bring.

Talk to your child and advise them to avoid salty foods like chips and popcorn, as well as caffeine. Now is a good time to reinforce their ability to be responsible for their actions. These foods and drinks increase a child’s chances of wetting the bed.

Advise your child to sleep closest to the door or bathroom. If they need to get up in the middle of the night they can easily do so and go to the bathroom to handle any bed wetting episodes.

Together with your child make up an overnight travel bag. In the bag include a small package of wipes, clean pajama bottoms, and extra pairs of underwear and Good Nights (disposable underwear).

If your child will be using a sleeping bag, use a waterproof sleeping bag liner like those offered at the Bedwetting Store. They usually come with a carry case and are machine washable to use over and over again. Insert the liner into the sleeping bag before rolling it up and taking it to the sleepover and no one will even need to know it’s there.

Reassure your child that bedwetting is common, do not tease them or punish them and don’t allow others to tease them either. Acknowledging child’s concerns about bedwetting at an overnight and working together with them provides them with the tools and confidence they need to survive a night time of sleepovers, slumber parties and friendly fun.


Personal Experience

Labels: Advice and Tips for Your Bed Wetting Child Before a Sleepover

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